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|Thursday, May 01, 2014|
BY JOE ROJAS-BURKE | OB BLOGGER
Given Oregon’s green reputation, it’s jarring to see how badly the state ranks on measures of injustice in exposure to air pollution.
Environmental engineering professor Julian Marshall and colleagues at the University of Minnesota developed a high-resolution dataset on a major class of air pollutant – nitrogen oxides – and they used it to compare how neighborhood exposures differ according to the socioeconomic status and race or ethnicity of residents.
Much of the Willamette Valley scored as bad or worse than Southern California in the two measures of environmental injustice the researchers employed. The study didn’t delve into the local sources of nitrogen oxides, but exposure generally depends on how close you live to industrial sites, power plants, and heavily trafficked roads and highways. (About 5 percent of Hispanics and 5.4 percent of Asian or Pacific Islanders in the U.S. live within 150 meters of a major highway, compared with is 3.1 percent of non-Hispanic whites.)
Nitrogen oxides come from the exhaust pipes of cars, trucks and power plants and industries such as pulp mills that burn coal or natural gas. Living in places with higher levels of nitrogen oxides has been linked to increased risk of asthma, low birth-weight, and death from heart disease. Previous studies have found that concentrations tend to be higher in poorer neighborhoods. The new research is the first to map the differences in detail across the entire U.S. The study was published online in the journal PLoS One on April 15, 2014.
The map above compares exposure to nitrogen dioxide air pollution using the so-called Atkinson index of income inequality. It’s a way to measure how evenly or unevenly something is distributed across a population in relation to income. A score of zero would mean everyone is equally exposed regardless of income. Higher scores indicate worse inequality.
The map below highlights counties with the greatest inequality in exposure to nitrogen dioxide pollution by income and ethnicity. The comparison is between blacks, Hispanics and Asians earning less than $20,000 a year and whites earning more than $75,000.
The chart below shows how Portland compares with three California cities on exposure to nitrogen oxides (in parts per billion) by income and ethnicity:
Nationwide, the researchers concluded that residential exposures average about 38 percent higher for nonwhites than for whites, 10 percent higher for people below versus above the poverty line, and 8 percent higher for those with less than a high school education compared to those with a high school education or above.
These differences are far from trivial. The authors estimate that reducing nonwhites’ exposure to the average levels experienced by whites could prevent about 7,000 heart disease deaths per year. And that’s probably a lower-end estimate because it considers only one health outcome and one component of air pollution.
Possible solutions include doing more to cut motor vehicle emissions, for example, with cleaner fuels, very low emission engines, and better promotion of walking and public transportation. Some scientists think it’s time to impose much stricter standards for ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and other pollutants from cars and trucks.
Environmental justice advocates are calling for more vigilant city planning to prohibit new construction of apartments, schools, day care centers near highways. (A 2003 California law tried to prevent school districts from building campuses within 500 feet of a freeway, but at least one district, LA Unified, used loopholes to develop several new schools close to highways).
Injustices rooted in income inequality, and built over decades into the development patterns of cities aren’t going to be easy to reverse.
Joe Rojas-Burke blogs on science and health care for Oregon Business.
Thursday, October 01, 2015
PHOTOS BY JASON E. KAPLAN
Images from the big 2015 celebration of worker-friendly organizations that make a difference.
Wednesday, October 28, 2015
BY JOE CORTRIGHT
The myth of a freight-dependent economy.
Thursday, November 12, 2015
BY LINDA BAKER
I walked off the Vigor Industrial shipyard that day with a clear cover line in mind: the Love Boat.
Friday, October 30, 2015
BY LINDA BAKER
This is a story about a small plastics company in wine country now exporting more than one million feet — 260 miles worth — of tubing to China every month.
Monday, September 28, 2015
BY JACOB PALMER
“There wasn’t a reason shaving with a straight razor should have been taken over by shaving with disposable razors.”
Friday, November 20, 2015
BY JASON NORRIS AND MARY FAULKNER
It’s been a volatile year in equities and heading into the holiday season, it doesn’t look like these market extremes will dissipate.
Monday, October 05, 2015
VIDEO BY JESSE LARSON
Profiling some of the organizations featured in the 2015 list.
|The Love Boat|
|The Food Pod Grows Up|
|The High Road|
|Tinker, Tailor, Portland Maker|
|The Shift to Community Health Care|
|The Harder They Fall|
Economic diversity has proven a smart strategy for the Port of Hood River. How can other Oregon communities replicate the model?
Phone, Internet needs of small community school districts earn attention of top-five telecom provider.
Farmland LP grows its vision for organic farming in Oregon.
The Salem Convention Center has capped its tenth anniversary year by earning the prestigious “Best of the Best 2015” award from NW Meetings & Events magazine. Selected as the Best Convention/Conference Venue in Oregon by meeting and event planners from Alaska, British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon and Washington, the Salem Convention Center ranked above the Oregon Convention Center and the Portland Art Museum.
The Oregon Cooperative Hall of Fame honors individuals for their outstanding contributions to the successful building and operation of Oregon agricultural cooperatives.
Health insurer reports $10.2 million in net income after taxes through the first nine months of 2015.